Used to improve sexuality, assist with thrush, bad odour that women experience today, which may cause your partner to avoid intiamcy with you. The genus was named in honour of the Norwegian bishop and botanist Johan Ernst Gunnerus (1718–1773) [1]. A. Hutchings, A. H. Scott, G. Lewis, and A. Continued research on G. perpensa compounds, development, and discovery of pharmaceutical products and drugs from this species in the future will require more detailed studies in both the preclinical and clinical trials. According to Simelane et al. Buwa and Van Staden [32] evaluated the antifungal activity of aqueous, ethanolic, and ethyl acetate root extracts of G. perpensa against Candida albicans. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Umhlonyane: Leaves: Infusion used as a wash for wounds Helichrysum appendiculatum (L.f.) Less. Khan et al. Extracts of G. perpensa showed possible scavenging activity in a concentration dependent manner with water extracts demonstrating higher activity than the methanol extracts as they significantly decreased luciginin enhanced chemiluminescence at concentrations of 100 µg/ml and higher [65]. The Xhosa people in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa, boil G. perpensa stem with water and take a glass of decoction as remedy for constipation [39]. The questionnaire was administered by two ofthe authors (C.L.M. Imbola: EC, KZN: Bulb Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. 2. Simelane et al. By contrast, Z-venusol 5 did not trigger the direct contractile response but induced the state of continuous contractility once the organ bath was flushed [59]. Several classes of phytochemicals including alkaloids, benzoquinones, ellagic acids, flavonoids, phenols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, and minerals have been isolated from G. perpensa. The results revealed that all the extracts were nonmutagenic towards the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 for the assay with and without S9 metabolic activation. [27] quantified antifungal activity of crude extracts of stems, roots, and leaves of G. perpensa as well as 2-methyl-6-(-3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 7, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 8, and 6-hydroxy-8-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2H-benzopyran 9 against Candida albicans using amphotericin B as control. ex. The author would like to express his gratitude to the National Research Foundation (NRF) and Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre (GMRDC), University of Fort Hare for financial support to conduct this research. [35] estimated the acetylcholinesterase activity of an aqueous extract of Gunnera perpensa rhizome using acetylthiocholine iodide and found the extract to inhibit 23% of AChE activity. There will be female flowers at the base, male flowers at the top, and bisexual flowers in the middle of each spike [1, 45]. Mathibe et al. [67] evaluated the in vitro antitumour effects of Z-venusol 5 isolated from the roots of G. perpensa as well as Re-Joovena™, a commercial concoction containing G. perpensa (0.3 mg/ml), Ocotea bullata (Burch.) These documented antitumour properties of G. perpensa justify the use of gently warmed aqueous rhizome decoctions and infusions administered orally for three to four weeks as remedy for cancer in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa [78]. Muleya et al. [5] revealed that G. perpensa and M. flabellifolia have similar geographical distribution. The results obtained in this study offer supporting evidence for the safe use of these water extracts. Simelane et al. [65] evaluated the antioxidant activity of G. perpensa via oxidant generation by N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine- (FMLP-) stimulated neutrophils measured using lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence as described by Allen [75]. According to Nkomo et al. [27] obtained highest sensitivity from the leaf extracts followed by the stems, with the least activity noted for the root extracts. [52], a species categorized as Least Concern (LC) under the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria version 3.1 [50] can additionally be categorized either as rare, critically rare, or declining. Compound, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 8, showed no activity while 2-methyl-6-(-3-methyl-2-butenyl)benzo-1,4-quinone 7 and 6-hydroxy-8-methyl-2,2-dimethyl-2H-benzopyran 9 showed weak to moderate activity with MIC values of 130 and 37 µg/ml, respectively [27]. To continue using baking soda to help you get pregnant, suck the liquid with a sterilized syringe. A. Lawal, T. G. Djarova, and A. R. Opoku, “, F. Mtunzi, E. Muleya, J. Modise, A. Sipamla, and E. Dikio, “Heavy metals content of some medicinal plants from Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa,”. [66] evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous and methanolic extracts of G. perpensa rhizome using the abdominal constriction, hotplate, formalin, hyperalgesia, and fresh egg albumin-induced inflammation. Gunnera perpensa L. is a member of the genus Gunnera L., a single genus of the family Gunneraceae. Jung, K. Kim, C.-J. Elephantorrhiza elephantina. Future research should also focus on assessing toxicological aspects of the leaves, rhizomes, roots, and stems of G. perpensa as at present there is not enough systematic data about the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of this species, especially target-organ toxicity. Van Staden, “Plant composition, pharmacological properties and mutagenic evaluation of a commercial Zulu herbal mixture: M. Mwale and P. J. Masika, “In vitro anthelmintic efficacy of medicinal plants against heterakis gallinarum in village chickens,”, M. Nkomo and L. Kambizi, “Antimicrobial activity of, L. J. McGaw, A. K. Jäger, and J. Aqueous extract of G. perpensa initiated contractions in the isolated rat uterus, showed direct smooth muscle activity on the uterus, and potentiated the initial response of the uterus to oxytocin. This sister relationship between genera Gunnera and Myrothamnus was inferred by rbcL, atpB, and 18S molecular data with a bootstrap value of 75% [3] and also by rbcL and rps16 introns molecular data [4]. Gobo root is traditionally valued for its antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Simelane et al. Molares and Ladio [13] also evaluated antibacterial activity of G. perpensa rhizomes against the Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The cytotoxicity of the extract (LC50) to two human cell lines (HEK293 and HepG2) was 279.43 μg/ml and 222.33 μg/ml, respectively [35]. Nkomo and Kambizi [63] also evaluated the antibacterial activity of methanol and water extracts of G. perpensa rhizomes against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus kristinae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus faecalis. The information provided does not constitute a diagnosis of your condition. McGaw et al. Similarly, Chigor [56] isolated alkaloids, flavonoids, flavonols, phenols, proanthocyanidins, and tannins from aqueous, acetone, and methanol leaf and rhizome extracts of G. perpensa. Email Decoction prepared from it is also used to remove excess fluid from the body and to … Soap, - using plants that contain saponins as the basis of a remedy that are stirred in water give the double benefit of dissolving the materials out of the plant medicine and creating a foam which carries the potentised substance to be partaken. Mainstream medicine Mainstream (Western) medicine, see there. Oops! Steenkamp et al. In Chinese herbal medicine, it is used in concert with other herbs to allay the discomfort of sore throats and colds. The fact that it has cleansing qualities but does not irritate mucous membranes makes it especially useful for a hardened uterus. In Sub-Saharan Africa, G. perpensa is the most popular Gunnera species. Such research work should be extended to focus on aspects of quality control to ensure safety and the fact that potentially toxic components of G. perpensa in herbal decoctions and infusions are kept below tolerance levels. The bioactive properties that have been reported so far based on G. perpensa crude extracts include acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme inhibition [35, 60], anthelmintic [61, 62], antibacterial [27, 32, 58, 60, 63–65], antifungal [32, 58, 60, 63], antinociceptive [66], anti-inflammatory [58, 60, 65, 66], antioxidant [54, 65], antitumour [67], lactogenic [35], and uterotonic [21, 59] properties. cunefolia (Eckl. [54] the total antioxidative capacity of G. perpensa was 36% relative to ascorbic acid (AA) and 64% relative to butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). and M.C.M.) Van Staden, “Antibacterial, anthelmintic and anti-amoebic activity in South African medicinal plants,”, V. Steenkamp, E. Mathivha, M. C. Gouws, and C. E. J. van Rensburg, “Studies on antibacterial, antioxidant and fibroblast growth stimulation of wound healing remedies from South Africa,”, M. Nkomo, B. N. Nkeh-Chungag, L. Kambizi, E. J. Ndebia, and J. E. Iputo, “Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of gunnera perpensa (gunneraceae),”, L. J. Mathibe, J. Botha, and S. Naidoo, “Z-venusol, from, S. B. Ozturk Sarikaya, “Acethylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and antioxidant properties of pyrogallol,”. Some of the pharmacological activities of G. perpensa reported in literature correlate with some of its ethnomedicinal uses as a single agent or as part of a complex herbal decoction or infusion mixed with other plant species as summarized in Tables 1 and 2. Infusion made from fresh or dried parts Asteraceae Artemisia afra Jacq. More rigorous investigations should be done in the future investigating dosage range that is safe for humans and evaluations of target-organ toxicity. Indlebeyemvu: Leaves: Tea from dried leaves applied to circumcision wounds H. aureonitens Sch.Bip. Gunnera manicata Linden ex Delchev. Muleya et al. 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